dimecres, 17 de desembre de 2014

Resum de l’any que està per acabar

Com cada any m’agrada fer balanç del que ha estat l’any que està a punt d’acabar.
Per a variar, vull començar parlant de les coses dolentes que hem viscut aquest any, sempre a nivel personal evidentment, no m’agradaria posar-me a parlar de les barbaritats que s’han viscut al món i deixar-me’n alguna, això no seria just!
Dolent ha estat l’any pel que fa a la salut per a la mama. Hem tingut força ensurts al llarg de l’any, uns de més greus que els altres, però no perd mai la il·lusió. És una dona tan forta com no n’hi ha! Per a mi és un exemple a seguir perquè, tot i la seva salut feble, sempre té un somriure i sempre és molt i molt agraïda amb aquells que l’estimen, la cuiden i la visiten.  Gràcies, Mama, per existir i per ser com ets!
Vam començar l’any malament perquè vam perdre una gran amiga en molt pocs dies. La nostra Pauline, la meva mama anglesa, Ens va deixar la matinada del 15 de febrer, desprès d’una semana on les notícies passaven de les bones a les dolentes i a l’inrevés. Finalment no se’n va poder sortir i va aconseguir les seves ales per descansar i cuidar-nos a tots des d’allà on se trova ara. No t’oblidarem mai!
Passem però a les coses bones, que n’han estat moltes i per les quals dono gràcies cada dia:
-           - Gràcies per tenir salut per poder tirar endavant i ajudar a qui me necesita, malgrat l’esgotament físic i mental que pateixo de vegades, però que, sense saber com, sempre tiro endavant.
          -     Gràcies per tenir una familia com la nostra que fa pinya davant les dificultats i que ens ajuda a ensenyar als nostres menuts què és la familia i què és l’amor i el respecte.
-                - Gràcies als amics que també ens fan costat, ens veiem sovint o no, ens parlem sovint o no, perquè gràcies a ells podem desconnectar de tot allò que ens produeix angoixes i malhumors.
-            -Gràcies per tenir una feina tan bonica com és poder ensenyar idiomes i per tenir uns alumnes que m’omplen de satisfacció quan veig com aprenen i com es van treient els diplomes que necessiten bé sigui per al present o preparant-se per al seu futur profesional.
-          - Gràcies a algú molt especial que he conegut enguany i que m’ha fet costat des de la llunyania perquè no ha permès que me sentí sola en moments durs que he viscut al llarg d’aquest any. Algú tan especial que fa que tornes a creure en tu mateix amb el mínim esforç. T’estimo un munt, ja ho saps!
     Vull nombrar el premi que mon germà va rebre al novembre. Va ser guardonat amb el premi d’Acció Cívica de la Fundació Carulla per la seva trajectòria en la defensa de la llengua, la cultura i la nació catalana. Un premi molt merescut i que ens va omplir d’orgull a tots els i les que l’estimem. Allí ens vam reunir familiars, amics, alumnes i antics alumnes per estar amb ell en un momento tan important en la seva vida. No cal ni dir l’orgullosa que me sento d’ell. Mano, t’estimo, moltes felicitats!
     També vull dir com me sento d’orgullosa de mons fillols, la Rosa i el Guillem. Són uns grans estudiants amb unes notes simplement fantàstiques. A més de ser increíblement cariñosos i agraïts. Us estimo molt, carinyets!
    Vull també mencionar l’any fantàstic que hem viscut a nivel nacional. Els que me coneixeu ja sabeu què en pensó del meu país i què sento. Sí, sóc independentista, però voldria treure aviat aquest adjectiu de la meva descripció ideológica perquè això voldria dir que ja som lliures, que ja no tenim cap lligam polític amb el país veí. El 2014 ens ha vist lluitar per continuar demanant la independencia i el que hem viscut enguany ha estat un somni que ens portarà cap a la llibertat. Les manifestacions de l’11 de setembre, la votació del 9N, els moviments socials, que no polítics solament, són mostres ben clares del que vol la societat catalana, la llibertat! Si tot va bé, el 2015 serà encara molt millor! Visca la Terra!
     Ara venen dies de familia i amics, festa i vacances; si tot va bé podré gaudir d’uns dies amb uns amics que tinc lluny de casa però que sé que són a prop a la vegada. Ja fa varios anys que passem el Cap d’Any junts i s’agraeix molt que t’obrin les portes de casa seva i et facin sentir un més de la familia.
     Desitjo que passeu unes bones festes i que acabeu i comenceu l’any nou amb molta felicitat per a vosaltres i la gent que estimeu i us estima.

BON NADAL i FELIÇ ANY NOU!

dissabte, 11 d’octubre de 2014

És el que penso!

Els que em coneixeu ja sabeu què penso de tot això de la independència de Catalunya! No cal ni dir que no ho he amagat mai i he defensat arreu i amb tothom el dret a decidir del poble català.
M'indignen els moviments feixistes del govern de l'estat espanyol, els comentaris insultants de molts espanyols a les xarxes socials, les polítiques anti-socials que es fan a casa i a l'estat... i tantes coses que la llista seria inacabable! 
Però el que més m'indigna és que hi ha gent que s'ha afegit al carro, quan li convé, per les raons que siguen però sempre a nivell particular mai col·lectiu, i que mai, però mai ha fet res per defensar la terra, la llengua, la cultura i la nació catalanes, sent nascuts a catalunya i fills de catalans! Aquesta gent normalment va de "progre", d'esquerres, lliberals, anti tot, però en realitat són més papistes que el papa! Realment aquesta gent giren depèn de com bufa el vent i amb qui estan! no tenen ni ideals ni consciència ni res! Són uns venuts ignorants i egoistes que s'omplen la boca defensant lel que els hi convè quan els hi convè però no per interessos del poble sinó propis! 
Fa unes setmanes vaig llegir un escrit d'un personatge conegut lamentant-se d'una situació actual que es vivia al seu poble, però sabeu què? En la darrera manifestació de l'aigua, aquest personatge no hi era! I no, no estava malalt, ni tenia torn, nooooo estava de viatge de plaer, que tot el dret en té, però que desprès no es vagi omplint la boca amb ximpleries perquè si s'estima la terra, se la defensa a les verdes i a les madures, no solament quan a nosaltres ens convé a nivell particular! I molt menys pot pretendre's desprès de ser un exemple a seguir! 
Senyores i senyors, siguem seriosos! Ja n'hi ha prou de titelles o pretesos divismes inexistents! La terra, la llengua, la cultura i la nació no estan en venda! Si ara hi ha hagut un moviment social que ens ha portat al moment tan important que estem vivint aquests dies, ha sigut això, un moviment social!  Els polítics s'hi han hagut d'afegir, no són ells els que ho han portat endavant, sinó la societat catalana que ja n'ha tingut prou i vol decidir per ella mateixa. Insultar i desacreditar aquesta gent no demostra sinó el tipus de persones que són. 
Tots sabem com està el nostre país i tot el que hem hagut de renunciar en els darrers anys, però ha arribat l'hora de trobar la solució definitiva i deixar de posar parxes que només enfosqueixen el problema de fons. La solució no està en continuar dins d'un estat que no ens ha volgut mai, ni ens vol ni ens voldrà, més aviat ens ha intentat fer desaparèixer com  a nació erradicant els nostres arrels i la nostra cultura, com fan la majoria de colonitzadors, però no se n'ha sortit ni se'n sortirà! La solució està en tirar endavant i un cop tinguem un país nostre i lliure que la societat no pari que marcar de prop els seus polítics perquè aquests facin realment el millor per al nostre país i la nostra gent! 
Aquests que s'omplen la boca criticant les polítiques actuals i intentar desacreditar a tots els polítics, d'acord que n'hi ha un bon grapat que se mereixen un bon càstic a nivell de vots i de poder, i que per altra banda es vanten de ser "molt d'esquerres" penjant coses de partits esquerrans i nacionalistes o internacionalistes però, de fet, tenen tant d'esquerres com jo de monja de clausura!
Feu-vos-ho mirar!!!!!!!!!!!! No m'agrada usar insults ni paraules buides, ja ho sabeu però és que hi ha moments en què he de dir el que penso! 

diumenge, 28 de setembre de 2014

Mestràlia, Grallers i Tabalers i Balls de Campredó a Fira del joglar de Céret

Aquest cap de setmana hem estat per terres forànies. Alguns representants de Fira Mestràlia, alguns dels membres del grup de Grallers i Tabalers de Campredó i algunes de les balladores de Balls de Campredó hem representat al poble a la Fira del Joglar a Céret al Vallespir, Catalunya Nord. Se'ns va convidar a participar  a la fira i, com sempre, ens hem organitzat una petita representació d'aquests tres grups representatius del poble de Campredó i hem expandit el que sabem fer, ballar, tocar i defensar i donar a conèixer la música tradicional de les nostres terres i fer sabedors als lutiers assistents  a la fira de l'existència de Mestràlia, referent de fires de lutiers ja arreu del territori.
Ens vam aixecar molt aviat dissabte al matí i a les 6 am sortíem en direcció Céret. Un cop en marxa vam parar a agafar energies a l'autopista i fins i tot llavors vam estar ballant a la zona d'aparcament, escalfant els motors per al que havíem de fer més tard.
Arribats al cap d'unes hores a Céret, vam trobar-nos un poble força concorregut perquè a part de la Fira del Joglar, hi havia també la típica fireta al carrer dels dissabtes. Tot un guirigall de gents vingudes d'arreu que s'aturaven quan sentien tocar la gralla i els tabals i veien un grup de xiques posar-se a ballar uns balls que no havien vist mai al mig del carrer. I així un cop, i un altre i anar canviant de lloc, i tornar a ballar i gent diferent que ens mirava i aplaudia, i a tornar-hi... i així fins l'hora de dinar. Val a dir que ens en vam adonar de com som de sorollosos a TTEE! Entre el silenci dels lutiers mentre dinaven només ens sentìem nosaltres rient i fent gresca!
La tarda-nit va tenir lloc una comferència al Museu dels Instruments de Céret, un lloc mereixedor d'una visita, i desprès de sopar un concert de música de cambra amb tenores i barítones, fins que van pujar  al'escenari els nostres músics més uns quants altres que s'hi van afegir i és clar, vam tornar a ballar fins que el cansament ja no ens va deixar continuar.
Hem d'agrair a l'organització de la Fira el bon tracte i com ens van fer sentir còmodes a terra estranya. Els vam convidar a unir-se a nosaltres a Fira Mestràlia al juliol vinent, així com també al grup de lutiers i altres músics que es trobaven allí.
Esperem poder tornar-hi l'any que ve, en major nombre de músics i balladors per tornar a xalar d'allò més, que de fet, d'això és del que se tracta, oi?

dijous, 11 de setembre de 2014

Diada històrica


El que hem viscut avui 11 de setembre de 2014 a BCN no és sinó un exemple més del que podem fer els catalans si fotem el cap dels que ens escanyen, independentment dels polítics que fan o desfan, diuen o no diuen depenent de qui els escolta per interessos particulars!!! Ara hem d'anar tots a una i un cop tinguem la nostra llibertat, aprofitar per expressar a les urnes què vol la societat i "obligar" els polítics votats a fer el que la societat els demana i exigeix!! Avui hi havia gent de tantes sigles diferents tots units sota el mateix crit d "independència" que demostra que si se vol se pot!!!!!!!!!!! 


La multitud de catalans i catalanes que s'han reunit avui a la capital de la nació ha expressat el que vol, i tot polític que n'entengui ha de saber llegir el que la gent li demana. Ara no hi ha marxa enrera. Ara estem en el bon camí, hem de continuar endavant i votar el 9 novembre. La societat ho vol, la societat ho demana, la societat ha parlat! Senyors polítics, no ens fallin!
A més a més, vull dir que reunir-nos els mateixos companys que anàvem als anys vuitanta a les manifestacions a BCN i havíem d'evitar en alguns cops a la policia pk no ens agafés o simplement per evitar aldarulls, o que avui recordàvem que erem 4 gats en aquells temps i en canvi avui... ufffffffff hem xalat!!! Com hem xalat de recordar temps passats!!! No hem canviat! Sóm i tenim els mateixos somnis de llavors!!! Continuem igual d'units i ens mantenim ferms en els nostres desitjos i les nostres lluites.


VISCA LA TERRA! VISCA CATALUNYA LLIURE!

dilluns, 11 d’agost de 2014

Vacances d'estiu

Acabem de tornar d'una setmaneta de vacances inoblidables a Ayerbe. En els darrers temps aquest poble de la Hoya de Huesca s'ha convertit en el meu destí de vacances, per proximitat però sobre tot per poder gaudir de la companyia dels amics que viuen lluny i que fa anys que intentem reunir-nos al menys un cop l'any, i aquest poblet és el lloc perfecte per poder trobar-nos a meitat de camí! Conchi i Alberto baixen des del País Basc, nosaltres pugem des de Catalunya i els nostres amfitrions, Ana i Fèlix and family, viatgen des de les illes Canàries! Qui ha dit que no se pot trobar un lloc i un moment per reunir-se amb la gent que estimes i que no tens a prop sovint? No cal ni dir que també hi ha un grapat de gent autòctona del poble que ens ha acollit i ja ens ha afegit  ala seva llista d'amics! Gràcies a tots podem gaudir d'experiències ben boniques, bones xerrades, moltes risses, llagrimes de comiat, mea culpa!, bons àpats i molta xalera.
Passar aquests dies a Ayerbe esdevé un oasi dintre la rutina diària i estressant desprès d'un curs llarg i molt enfeinat. Tant hi fa la calor, o el fred, la pluja i les pedregades, el vent dels Pirineus... res ens fa nosa per poder continuar amb les nostres sortides i la companyia mútua que ens fem!
L'amistat amb aquesta gent ja ve de lluny, des del 1999, un tour per Itàlia en té la culpa! I, ves per on, al cap de 15 anys encara ens continuem tractant de la mateixa manera i ens estimem com des del principi, i ben poca gent pot dir una cosa així!
Ara ens cal una mica de paciència fins la propera vegada que ens trobem, pot ser al desembre, per setmana santa o ja fins l'estiu vinent, però, si res ho impedeix, allà que hi farem cap!
Us estimo! Gràcies per formar part de la meva vida!

dilluns, 7 de juliol de 2014

Gràcies, Soldevila!

Ha estat un cap de setmana simplement gloriós! El poble de Campredó ha pogut gaudir de tres dies de festa com se poden trobar a ben pocs llocs arreu! 
Des de divendres fins a diumenge la nit ha sigut un no parar de concerts, balls, cultura, tradició, molta xalera i sobre tot molt bona gent vinguda d'arreu dels Països Catalans, un grapat de gent professional i amb devoció per la música i el territori. I hem de remarcar, per a que tothom se n'assabenti, tot amb un pressupost Low Cost! 
És increïble com amb tants pocs recursos els membres de l'Associació Soldevila han pogut fer crèixer i donar a conèixer Mestràlia, una fira que ja és tot un referent arreu del país. Cada any se superen i aconsegueixen que els i les visitants a Fira Mestràlia marxin amb un somriure de satisfacció per tot el que han viscut i que ja comencin a comptar els dies que falten per a la propera edició! 
No tinc paraules per descriure tot el que hem viscut aquests dies, realment quan hi penso l'únic que em ve és un somriure d'orella a orella! Si me donessen a escollir quina activitat he gaudit més, no podria! No podria pel simple fet que tot, repeteixo, tot, ha estat increïblement fantàstic! 
Així que, com encara ens dura l'esgotament i la felicitat, només vull dir-vos, estimats membres i col·laboradors de Soldevila, sou collonuts!!!!!!!!!! Moltes felicitats per la feina ben feta! Endavant i Visca la Terra! 

dimarts, 1 de juliol de 2014

Hedge Schools


A hedge school (Irish names include scoil chois claí, scoil ghairid and scoil scairte) is the name given to an educational practice in 18th and 19th century Ireland, so called due to its rural nature. It came about as local educated men began an oral tradition of teaching the community. With the advent of the commercial world in Ireland after 1600, its peasant society saw the need for greater education.
While the "hedge school" label suggests the classes always took place outdoors (next to a hedgerow), classes were sometimes held in a house or barn. Subjects included primarily basic grammar, English and maths (the fundamental "three Rs"). In some schools the Irish bardic tradition, Latin, history and home economics were also taught. Reading was generally based on chapbooks, sold at fairs, typically with exciting stories of well-known adventurers and outlaws. Payment was generally made per subject, and brighter pupils would often compete locally with their teachers.
While Catholic schools were forbidden under the Penal laws from 1723 to 1782, no hedge teachers were known to be prosecuted. Indeed, official records were made of hedge schools by census makers. The laws' main target was education by the main Catholic religious orders, whose wealthier establishments were occasionally confiscated. The laws aimed to force Irish Catholics of the middle classes and gentry to convert to Anglicanism if they wanted a good education in Ireland.
Hedge schools declined from the foundation of the National School system by government in the 1830s. James Doyle, Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin preferred this, as the new schools would be largely under the control of his church and allow a better teaching of Catholic doctrine.

It has been  found that hedge schools existed into the 1890s and suggested that the schools had existed as much from rural poverty and a lack of resources as from religious oppression. Marianne Eliott also mentions that they were used by the poor and not just by the Catholics. While the hedge schools were unfunded, the national school system set up from 1831 was ahead of school provision in England at that time. After 1900, some historians like Daniel Corkery tended to emphasize the hedge schools' classical studies (in Latin and Greek), but while these studies were sometimes taught (based on a local demand), they were not always common to every school.

dimarts, 17 de juny de 2014

The Ordnance Survey

Ordnance Survey (Welsh: Arolwg Ordnans), an executive agency and non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom, is the national mapping agency for Great Britain, producing maps of Great Britain (and to an extent, the Isle of Man), and one of the world's largest producers of maps.
The name reflects its creation together with the original military purpose of the organisation (see ordnance and surveying) in the first instance in mapping Scotland at the time of the creation of the British United Kingdom following many centuries of conflict and confirmed later during the Napoleonic Wars when there was a threat of invasion from France, and its logo includes the War Department's broad arrow heraldic mark. Ordnance Survey mapping is usually classified as 'large scale' (i.e. showing more detail) or 'small scale'. Large-scale mapping comprises maps at six inches to the mile or more (1:10,560, superseded by 1:10,000 in the 1950s); it was available in sheet-map form till the 1980s, since when it has become digital. Small-scale mapping comprises maps at fewer than six inches to the mile and includes the "leisure maps", such as the popular one inch to the mile and its metric successors, still available in traditional sheet-map form. Ordnance Survey of Great Britain maps are in copyright for 50 years after publication date. Some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital O.S. mapping.
Northern Ireland, although part of the United Kingdom, is mapped by a separate government agency, the Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland.
The roots of Ordnance Survey go back to 1747, when Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Scottish Highlands to facilitate the subjugation of the clans following the Jacobite rising of 1745. In response, King George II commissioned a military survey of the Highlands, and Watson was placed in charge under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among his assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby, and John Manson. The survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards. The labours of Watson and Roy, in particular, resulted in The Duke of Cumberland's Map, now in the British Library. Roy would go on to have an illustrious career in the Royal Engineers, and he was largely responsible for the British share of the work in determining the relative positions of the French and British royal observatories. This work was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain (1783 – 1853), and led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself. Roy's technical skills and leadership set the high standard for which Ordnance Survey became known. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roy's supervision, when the Board of Ordnance (a predecessor of part of the modern Ministry of Defence) began a national military survey starting with the south coast of England.
By 1791, the Board received the newer Ramsden theodolite (an improved successor to the one that Roy had used in 1784), and work began on mapping southern Great Britain using 5 mile baseline on Hounslow Heath that Roy himself had previously measured and that crosses the present Heathrow Airport. A set of postage stamps, featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet, was issued in 1991 to mark the bicentenary.
In 1801, the first one-inch-to-the-mile (1:63,360 scale) map was published, detailing the county of Kent, with Essex following shortly after. The Kent map was published privately and stopped at the county border while the Essex maps were published by Ordnance Survey and ignore the county border, setting the trend for future Ordnance Survey maps.
During the next twenty years, roughly a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale (see Principal Triangulation of Great Britain) under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence. It took till 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787. By 1810, one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. It was gruelling work: Major Thomas Colby, later the longest serving Director General of Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles (943 km) in 22 days on a reconnaissance in 1819. In 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile (1:10,560) valuation survey. The survey of Ireland, county by county, was completed in 1846. The suspicions and tensions it caused in rural Ireland are the subject of Brian Friel's play Translations.
Colby was not only involved in the design of specialist measuring equipment. He also established a systematic collection of place names, and reorganised the map-making process to produce clear, accurate plans. He believed in leading from the front, travelling with his men, helping to build camps and, as each survey session drew to a close, arranging mountain-top parties with enormous plum puddings.
The British Geological Survey was founded in 1835 as the Ordnance Geological Survey, under Henry De la Beche and remained a branch of the Ordnance Survey until 1965. At the same time the uneven quality of the English and Scottish maps was being improved by engravers under Benjamin Baker. By the time Colby retired in 1846, the production of six inch maps of Ireland was complete. This had led to a demand for similar treatment in England and work was proceeding on extending the six inch map to northern England, but only a three inch scale for most of Scotland.
When Colby retired he recommended William Yolland as his successor, but he was considered too young and a less experienced Lewis Hall was appointed instead. When after a fire in the Tower of London, the headquarters of the survey was moved to Southampton, Yolland was put in charge, but Hall sent him off to Ireland so that he was again passed over when Hall left in 1854 in favour of Major Henry James. Hall was enthusiastic about extending the survey of the north of England to a scale of 1:2,500. In 1855, the Board of Ordnance was abolished and the Ordnance Survey was placed under the War Office together with the Topographical Survey and the Depot of Military Knowledge. Eventually in 1870 it was transferred to the Office of Works.
The primary triangulation of the United Kingdom of Roy, Mudge and Yolland was completed by 1841, but was greatly improved by Alexander Ross Clarke who completed a new survey based on Airy's spheroid in 1858, completing the Principal Triangulation.  The following year he completed an initial levelling of the country.
After the first Ireland maps came out in the mid-1830s, the Tithe Commutation Act 1836 led to calls for a similar six-inch to the mile survey in England and Wales. Official procrastination followed, but the development of the railways added to pressure that resulted in the Ordnance Survey Act 1841. This granted a right to enter property for the purpose of the survey. Following a fire at its headquarters at the Tower of London in 1841  the Ordnance Survey relocated to a site in Southampton and was in disarray for several years, with arguments about which scales to use. Major-General Sir Henry James was by then Director General, and he saw how photography could be used to make maps of various scales cheaply and easily. He developed and exploited photozincography, not only to reduce the costs of map production but also to publish facsimiles of nationally important manuscripts. Between 1861 and 1864, a facsimile of the Domesday Book was issued, county by county, and in 1870 a facsimile of the Gough Map.
From the 1840s the Ordnance Survey concentrated on the Great Britain 'County Series', modelled on the earlier Ireland survey. A start was made on mapping the whole country, county by county, at six inches to the mile (1:10,560). From 1854, to meet requirements for greater detail, including land-parcel numbers in rural areas and accompanying information, cultivated and inhabited areas were mapped at 1:2500 (25.344 inches to the mile), at first parish by parish, with blank space beyond the parish boundary, and later continuously. Early copies of the 1:2500s were available hand-coloured. Up to 1879, the 1:2500s were accompanied by Books of Reference or "area books" that gave acreages and land-use information for land-parcel numbers. After 1879, land-use information was dropped from these area books; after the mid-1880s, the books themselves were dropped and acreages were printed instead on the maps. After 1854, the six-inch maps and their revisions were based on the "twenty-five inch" maps and theirs. The six-inch sheets covered an area of six by four miles on the ground; the "twenty-five inch" sheets an area of one by one and a half. One square inch on the "twenty-five inch" maps was roughly equal to an acre on the ground. In later editions the six-inch sheets were published in "quarters" (NW,NE,SW,SE), each covering an area of three by two miles on the ground. The first edition of the two scales was completed by the 1890s. A second edition (or "first revision") was begun in 1891 and completed just before the First World War. From 1907 till the early 1940s, a third edition (or "second revision") was begun but never completed: only areas with significant changes on the ground were revised, many two or three times.
Meanwhile funding had been agreed in the 1850s for a more detailed survey of towns and cities. From 1850-53, twenty-nine towns were mapped at 1:528 (10 feet to the mile). From 1855 1:500 (10.56 feet to the mile) became the preferred scale. London and some seventy other towns (mainly in the north) were already being mapped at 1:1056 (5 feet to the mile). Just under 400 towns with a population of over 4000 were surveyed at one of these three scales, most at 1:500. Publication of the town plans was completed by 1895. The London first edition was completed and published in 326 sheets in the 1860s-70s; a second edition of 759 sheets was completed and brought out in the early 1890s; further revisions (incomplete coverage of London) followed between 1906 and 1937. Very few other towns and cities saw a second edition of the town plans.
From 1911 onwards (mainly 1911-1913), the Ordnance Survey photo-enlarged to 1:1250 (50.688 inches to the mile) many 1:2500 sheets covering built-up areas, for Land Valuation / Inland Revenue purposes. About a quarter of these 1:1250s were marked "Partially revised 1912/13". In areas where there were no further 1:2500s, these partially revised "fifty inch" sheets represent the last large-scale revision (larger than six-inch) of the County Series. The County Series mapping was superseded by the Ordnance Survey National Grid 1:1250s, 1:2500s and 1:10,560s after the Second World War.

From the late 19th century to the early 1940s, for War Office purposes, the O.S. produced many "restricted" versions of the County Series maps and other War Department sheets, in a variety of large scales, that included details of military significance, such as dockyards, naval installations, fortifications, and military camps. These areas were left blank or incomplete on standard maps - though for a brief period in the early 1930s, during the Disarmament talks, some of the blanks were filled in. The War Department 1:2500s, unlike the standard issue, were contoured. The de-classified sheets have now been deposited in some of the Copyright Libraries, helping to complete the map-picture of pre-Second World War Britain.

dijous, 12 de juny de 2014

Brian Friel. Lost in Translation

Translations is a three-act play by Irish playwright Brian Friel written in 1980. It is set in Baile Beag (Ballybeg), a small village at the heart of 19th century agricultural Ireland. Friel has said that Translations is "a play about language and only about language", but it deals with a wide range of issues, stretching from language and communication to Irish history and cultural imperialism. Friel responds strongly to both political and language questions in modern-day Northern Ireland. He said that his play "should have been written in Irish" but, despite this fact, he crafted carefully the verbal action in English which makes the dynamics of the play come alive, and brings its political questions into true focus.
Baile Beag ("Smalltown") is a fictional village, created by Friel as a setting for several of his plays, although such a place name does exist: as a working class suburb of Waterford, a village in County Wicklow and a village in County Down (all in Ireland).
The play is set in the quiet community of Baile Beag (later anglicised to Ballybeg), in County Donegal, Ireland in 1833. Many of the inhabitants have little experience of the world outside the village. In spite of this, tales about Greek goddesses are as commonplace as those about the potato crops, and, besides Irish, Latin and Greek are spoken in the local hedge school. Friel uses language as a tool to highlight the problems of communication — lingual, cultural, and generational. In the world of the play, the characters, both Irish and English, "speak" their respective languages, but in actuality English is predominantly spoken. This allows the audience to understand all the languages, as if a translator were provided. However, onstage the characters cannot comprehend each other. This is due to lack of compromise from both parties, the English and Irish, to learn the others' language, a metaphor for the wider barrier that is between the two parties.[5]
The action begins with Owen (mistakenly pronounced as Roland by his British counterparts), younger son of the alcoholic schoolmaster Hugh and brother to lame aspiring teacher Manus, returning home after six years away in Dublin. With him are Captain Lancey, a middle-aged, pragmatic cartographer, and Lieutenant Yolland, a young, idealistic and romantic orthographer, both working on the six-inch-to-the-mile map-survey of Ireland for the Ordnance Survey. Owen acts as a translator and go-between for the British and Irish.
Yolland and Owen work to translate local placenames into English for purposes of the map: Druim Dubh becomes Dromduff and Poll na gCaorach becomes Poolkerry. While Owen has no qualms about anglicising the names of places that form part of his heritage, Yolland, who has fallen in love with Ireland, is unhappy with what he perceives as a destruction of Irish culture and language.
A love triangle between Yolland, Manus, and a local woman, Máire, complicates matters. Yolland and Máire manage to show their feelings for each other despite the fact that Yolland speaks only English and Máire only Irish. Manus, however, had been hoping to marry Máire, and is infuriated by their blossoming relationship. When he finds out about a kiss between the two he sets out to attack Yolland, but in the end cannot bring himself to do it.
Unfortunately, Yolland goes missing overnight (it is hinted that he has been attacked, or worse, by the elusive armed resistance in the form of the Donnelly twins), and Manus flees because his heart has been broken but it is made obvious that the English soldiers will see his disappearance as guilt. It is suggested that Manus will be killed as he is lame and the English will catch up with him. Máire is in denial about Yolland's disappearance and remains convinced that he will return unharmed. The British soldiers, forming a search party, rampage across Baile Beag, and Captain Lancey threatens first to shoot all livestock then to evict and destroy the houses if Yolland is not found in twenty-four hours. Owen then realizes what he should do and leaves to join the resistance. The play ends ambiguously, with the schoolmaster Hugh consoling himself by reciting the opening of the Aeneid, which tells of the impermanence of conquests. Unfortunately, Hugh's stumbling attempts at recitation are evidence that our memory is also impermanent.
Friel's play tells of the current struggle between Britain and Ireland during this turbulent time. The play focuses mainly on (mis)communication and language to tell of the desperate situation between these two countries with an unsure and questionable outcome.
Historical references
  • The Englishmen in the play are a detachment of the Royal Engineers and function as part of the Ordnance Survey creating six-inch to the mile maps of all of Ireland. The characters of Captain Lancey and Lieutenant Yolland are fictionalized representations of two real soldiers who took part in the survey: Thomas Colby and William Yolland, but Thomas Larcom has also been identified as a possible model for the lieutenant, with Owen based on his teacher, the Irish linguist John O'Donovan.
  • The character Máire contemplates emigration to America, reflecting the mass emigration of Irish people to America in the 19th century. The theme of emigration is key throughout the whole play, as Manus plans to leave after being offered a job in another hedge school.
  • There are fearful references to potato blight, reminding the reader of the Great Famine of the 1840s, even though the play is set in 1833.
  • Irish politician and hero Daniel O'Connell is mentioned and quoted as saying that Irish people should learn English and that the Irish language was a barrier to modern progress. Anglicisation of place names, including Baile Beag (the setting), is prominent in the dialogue, because it is Lieutenant Yolland's professional assignment.

  • Characters Hugh and Jimmy remember how they marched to battle during the 1798 rebellion against the British influence in Ireland, only to march back home upon feeling homesick.

dimecres, 28 de maig de 2014

Temps al temps

M'acaben de dir que és molt difícil quedar amb mi! Serà cert? Realment tenim una agenda que Déu n'hi dó! Però tot és posar-se i organitzar-se per trobar un raconet per xerrar, fer el cafè, plorar o estimar o el que vulguem!!!
Cert és que tots tenim unes prioritats o obligacions que molts cops ens impedeixen trobar-nos amb gent que voldríem veure i abraçar més sovint, però, és clar, amb això pel mig, les coses es dificulten molt més!
Jo no he pogut quedar amb la meva millor amiga a soles, i gairebé ni en grup tampoc, des de fa gairebé tres anys! Tant ella com jo tenim unes responsabilitats familiars que ens impedeixen reunir-nos o molts de cops ni tan sols parlar per telèfon! Però això no vol dir res perquè les dos sabem com ens estimem i que quan ens necessitem podem comptar amb el suport de l'altra. I això ho faig extensiu a la resta d'amics. Hem de fer incís, però, en distingir entre amics i coneguts! Coneguts, molts, amics molts menys!
No obstant, hem d'estar contents de poder comptar amb tothom perquè a o amb tothom tenim alguna cosa en comú, siguin aficions, amor per alguna cosa o gent, mals de caps,... tot el que ens envolta ens dirigeix cap a un sector de gent o cap a un altre i de vegades per molt de temps o d'altres només per un període curt.
El que hem de tenir clar és que aprenem de totes aquestes riqueses que ens proporciona la vida. Qui no està content d'haver conegut algú en algun moment? Fins i tot si aquest algú al final ha sortit de la nostra vida, sempre hem d'agafar allò que ens fa millors, més savis i més tolerants; i pel que fa als que ens deixen un mal sabor de boca, hauríem de ser capaços de valorar si en algun moment ens van proporcionar alguna cosa que ens ajude a evolucionar, perquè sigui el que sigui, de tothom s'aprèn, tot i el desencís, la malenconia, el dolor, la ràbia... que ens hagin provocat, hem d'aprendre del que ens han aportat, si més no per no caure en un abisme de repeticions de situacions que tornaran i tornaran fins que no aprenguem la llicó.
Donem-nos temps, el temps necessari per païr el que sigui i desprès anem fent!

dimarts, 27 de maig de 2014

ADRIENNE RICH'S "SNAPSHOTS OF A DAUGHTER-IN -LAW"

1.
You, once a belle in Shreveport, 
with henna-colored hair, skin like a peachbud, 
still have your dresses copied from that time, 
and play a Chopin prelude 
called by Cortot: "Delicious recollections 
float like perfume through the memory."

Your mind now, moldering like wedding-cake, 
heavy with useless experience, rich 
with suspicion, rumor, fantasy, 
crumbling to pieces under the knife-edge 
of mere fact. In the prime of your life.

Nervy, glowering, your daughter
wipes the teaspoons, grows another way.


2.

Banging the coffee-pot into the sink 
she hears the angels chiding, and looks out 
past the raked gardens to the sloppy sky.
Only a week since They said: Have no patience.

The next time it was: Be insatiable.
Then: Save yourself; others you cannot save.
Sometimes she's let the tapstream scald her arm, 
a match burn to her thumbnail,

or held her hand above the kettle's snout 
right in the woolly steam. They are probably angels, 
since nothing hurts her anymore, except 
each morning's grit blowing into her eyes.


3.

A thinking woman sleeps with monsters.
The beak that grips her, she becomes. And nature, 
that sprung-lidded, still commodious 
steamer-trunk of tempora and mores 
gets stuffed with it all:  the mildewed orange-flowers, 
the female pills, the terrible breasts 
of Boadicea beneath flat foxes' heads and orchids.

Two handsome women, gripped in argument, 
each proud, acute, subtle, I hear scream 
across the cut glass and majolica 
like Furies cornered from their prey:
The argument ad feminam, all the old knives 
that have rusted in my back, I drive in yours, 
ma semblable, ma soeur!


4.

Knowing themselves too well in one another: 
their gifts no pure fruition, but a thorn, 
the prick filed sharp against a hint of scorn. . .
Reading while waiting 
for the iron to heat, 
writing, My Life had stood—a Loaded Gun—
in that Amherst pantry while the jellies boil and scum, 
or, more often, 
iron-eyed and beaked and purposed as a bird, 
dusting everything on the whatnot every day of life.


5.

Dulce ridens, dulce loquens, 
she shaves her legs until they gleam 
like petrified mammoth-tusk.


6.

When to her lute Corinna sings 
neither words nor music are her own;
only the long hair dipping 
over her cheek, only the song 
of silk against her knees 
and these 
adjusted in reflections of an eye.

Poised, trembling and unsatisfied, before 
an unlocked door, that cage of cages, 
tell us, you bird, you tragical machine—
is this fertilisante douleur? Pinned down 
by love, for you the only natural action, 
are you edged more keen 
to prise the secrets of the vault? has Nature shown 
her household books to you, daughter-in-law, 
that her sons never saw?


7.

"To have in this uncertain world some stay 
which cannot be undermined, is 
of the utmost consequence."
                                         Thus wrote 
a woman, partly brave and partly good, 
who fought with what she partly understood.
Few men about her would or could do more, 
hence she was labeled harpy, shrew, and whore.


8.

"You all die at fifteen," said Diderot, 
and turn part legend, part convention.
Still, eyes inaccurately dream
behind closed windows blankening with steam.
Deliciously, all that we might have been, 
all that we were—fire, tears, 
wit, taste, martyred ambition—
stirs like the memory of refused adultery 
the drained and flagging bosom of our middle years.


9.

Not that it is done well, but 
that it is done at all? Yes, think 
of the odds! or shrug them off forever.
This luxury of the precocious child, 
Time's precious chronic invalid,—
would we, darlings, resign it if we could?
Our blight has been our sinecure:
mere talent was enough for us—
glitter in fragments and rough drafts.

Sigh no more, ladies.
                               Time is male 
and in his cups drinks to the fair.
Bemused by gallantry, we hear 
our mediocrities over-praised, 
indolence read as abnegation, 
slattern thought styled intuition, 
every lapse forgiven, our crime 
only to cast too bold a shadow 
or smash the mold straight off.

For that, solitary confinement, 
tear gas, attrition shelling.
Few applicants for that honor.


10.

                                                Well, 
she's long about her coming, who must be 
more merciless to herself than history.
Her mind full to the wind, I see her plunge 
breasted and glancing through the currents, 
taking the light upon her 
at least as beautiful as any boy 
or helicopter, 
                     poised, still coming, 
her fine blades making the air wince

but her cargo
no promise then:
delivered
palpable 
ours.


 There is an "I" in the poem: it is the narrator's voice possessed of and providing all those allusions, angry, disabused, exigent, only hopeful, and not entirely convincingly so, at the conclusion.

The "you," an older woman whose mind is "moldering like wedding-cake" addressed in the opening section, is not the mother-in-law of a daughter-in-law but the mother of an impatient daughter. In many patrilocal cultures, the role of daughter-in-law is, across social classes, difficult and arduous: a young woman leaves her family home to be installed as dogsbody and scapegoat to her husband's extended family, often, in particular, to her mother-in-law, escaped by virtue of having borne and married off a son from the same thankless position: rarely are examples given of mothers-in-law who in empathy refuse to put their daughters-in-law through the trials they themselves suffered. Rich might not (yet) have been thinking of Indian or Indonesian daughters-in-law as she composed the poem (the only "mother-in-law" specifically mentioned is "Nature," from whom, the poem posits, a woman paradoxically stands at far greater remove than "her sons," like Aphrodite in the myth of Eros and Psyche), but the enforced generational or sisterly enmity between (powerless) women is much more focal to the poem than any relationship with men, who are largely present as sources of misogynistic quotations and damning faint praise. The only direct human confrontation in the poem is in the (14 line) third section's second septet—although putatively verbal, it is almost erotic:

    Two handsome women gripped in argument
    each proud, acute, subtle, I hear scream
    across the cut glass and majolica
    like Furies cornered from their prey:
    The arguments ad feminam, all the old knives
    that have rusted in my back, I drive into yours,
    ma semblable, ma soeur!

—terminating with the transformed last line of Baudelaire's poem "Au Lecteur" from the book he first wished (coincidentally) to call Lesbiennes.
the text moves through ten measured glimpses, each challenging the truth of preconceptions about the female individualist. The focus, a Shreveport belle, enters stanza 1 with studied grace. Well-schooled in womanliness, she performs a musicale, one of Chopin’s piano confections. By the end of the poem, the persona has achieved a transformation “long about her coming.” No longer the precious, static model of femininity, she accepts the challenge to “be more merciless to herself than history.”

The poem’s inner structure is a self-willed passage over a treacherous mindscape. From a psyche “moldering like wedding-cake,” the daughter-in-law departs from self-abuse and from becoming masculinized, like “the beak that grips her.” Jettisoning the trappings of fashion and custom, she battles “ma semblable, ma soeur!”—”my double, my sister!” The doppelganger motif places the speaker in merged roles—challenger and challenged—as she sheds constraint and uselessness, typified as “the whatnot every day of life.”

Crucial to Rich’s re-creation of woman is the rejecion of stereotypes—the sweetly laughing girl of Horace’s odes, the externally programmed lute player of Thomas Campion’s ditty. At the climax, the point beyond which life can never return to its old structures, Rich questions whether sorrow itself is a revitalizing force. Stanza 7 answers the question. For the first time, the poet cites a bold woman writer, Mary Wollstonecraft, a pioneer who suffered multiple criticisms for declaring that each must find “some stay,” the unshakeable anchor that steadies the rebel against convention. Unwilling to be a mere oddity, the one woman gifted with rare talents, the poet epitomizes change. Like the helicopter freighted with goods, she exults in a cargo
delivered
palpable
ours.

Her selection of a vertical delivery suggests that, for the motivated feminist, a satisfying arrival is a straight shot to earth, guided by gravity.
This poem too she says refers to the persona as ‘she’ and not ‘I’. Rich felt the constraint of the family honour and her children before she could let herself go with her imagination and with whatever she wanted to write. She could not write about pain, victimization or her own body because she was expected to be leading a normal life with a happy family, with absolutely no cause for depression.

Rich talks of a dream where she saw herself beginning to read a poem at a convention and slowly the words of a blues song emerge out of her lips. She realizes that the writings of women were indeed like a blues song. They were a cry of pain, of victimization or were lyrics of seduction. She feels that this feeling of anger and victimization was necessary for every woman to pass through because they were real. They helped the woman write better, be in touch with her own inner self better and to counter the oppressive male writers with her own soulful writings.

Rich feels that an alternate model of re-visioning history and old texts, accompanied by renaming with a fresh eye, would chalk out new territories for women to explore in their writings. While male writers are engrossed in conforming to their own constructions and patterns, to analyze political problems, socio-economic disturbances or acts of violence from a rational male perspective, women could clearly understand them from gendered humanitarian grounds.


Though Rich identifies herself as being a “special woman” who had been given privileges to read and to express, she feels that the model of re-visioning and renaming would only be justified if it brought out the women who were still trapped within the patriarchal confines of the society, morality and language.